October 26th, 2013
October 25th, 2013
My son is exceedingly reluctant to try new foods, and introducing anything new into his diet requires a well-orchestrated campaign to have any chance of success.
The first step is to simply place the whatever on his plate, alongside familiar foods, in the hopes that he will not realize that it is something new. This, to the best of my recollection, has succeeded exactly zero times.
Stage two is “just eat a little bit”, in which I segregate some small portion of the whatever away from the main corpus, and cajole him into eating that. This works infrequently. Next, I cut off a similar-sized piece for myself and make a grand show of eating it; unlike when he was younger he seems to get this now, and on rare occasions will follow suit.
If none of this works, I resort to bald trickery. My son rarely sits while eating, instead pacing around the dining area while scripting. I wait for him to draw near and then nonchalantly hand him the “little bit” that I cut of earlier. More often than you might imagine he unthinkingly pops the food into his mouth, so engrossed is he in his activity.
My last-ditch gambit is to encourage him to at least sample the flavor. “Taste it with your tongue,” I say, and he will do so if in an especially trusting mood, giving the food the tiniest of licks and then evaluating its palatability.
This morning I fried ham for his breakfast and, as it was new, went through the entire ritual above. “It’s Canadian bacon,” I emphasized several times, but he is unfortunately immune to marketing. He wouldn’t try the little bit, paid no mind when I ate some myself, and returned the piece I handed him to his plate before continuing on his way.
“Just taste it with you tongue,” I finally pleaded, gaving him the sliver of ham. To my surprise he obligingly brought it to his mouth. I was certain of victory, once he realized that it was essentially bacon.
But he did not taste it. Instead, keeping his eyes on me, he surreptitiously licked the ball of his own thumb, and then returned the ham to the plate as if he had tried and rejected it.
I guess I should of been mad at the deception. But I’d never seen that before, and hey: lying is a social skill. Go, theory of mind!
October 24th, 2013
“Who wants to go to the pumpkin patch?”
Every year in late October my son’s school takes a field trip to a local “pumpkin patch and family fun park”. For the last two years, I have gone as well. Many parents join the expedition as chaperones or drivers, but I am there specifically to ensure that my son does not have an “episode”.
Three years ago, before I began attending, there was an incident. At some point during the train ride my son became unaccountably agitated, and behaved aggressively toward the aide who was accompanying him, biting her on the arm. Afterward he had to be isolated from the other children while they calmed him down.
We weren’t surprised when we heard the news. There had been several similar incidents before then, and the field trip itself was a minefield of triggers. It was a full day of unstructured time, for instance, and my son fares best when there is routine. Riding the train was a novel experience, and it’s hard to tell in advance how he will react to such things. Perhaps most significantly, there was no way to exit the vehicle once he began to get agitated. Normally, when we or one of his teachers sense that he is becoming upset, we quickly intervene to separate him from the “antecedent”, as they say in ABA. In a situation like a train however, where there is no escape, there may also be no way to circumvent an outburst .
That was a rough year for him, and he has since gotten much better. Still, the school asks that I accompany him on these trips, as a precaution.
Because my son is largely non-verbal, he doesn’t tell us when he’s happy or sad or angry. We instead have to infer his internal state from his actions and demeanor. When happy he laughs, and displays boundless exuberance. He cries when sad – sometimes body-wracking sobs for reasons unknown to us. When he is angry he often lashes out, grabbing or pinching, and in extreme cases biting. Usually these are just fleeting moments of aggression, but occasionally he will fly into a rage, at which point it becomes exceedingly difficult to de-escalate the situation.
This became such a problem that we genuinely worried that he would get kicked out of school. Our greatest fear was that he would behave aggressively toward another child. Fortunately, these episodes conformed to the general rule that he ignores all except those with whom he is most familiar. Thus, the targets of these attacks were usually his teacher, aides, and parents, and we have all learned strategies for defusing the situation.
Over the last few years these incidents have become, on average, less frequent and severe. This is partly because he is maturing, I’m sure. But it’s also because we’ve become skilled at predicting what will disturb him, and steering clear of those circumstances. When we rode the train at the pumpkin patch today, for instance, I took a number of steps to minimize the chance that he would become upset. We waited until there wasn’t a line so we could board immediately, and wouldn’t find ourselves in the middle of a crowd. We sat by ourselves, at the front of a car. I held his hand to make sure he felt secure. And I watched him vigilantly out of the corner of my eye, for any sign of agitation. Whether because of these precautions, or due to factors beyond my ken, he remained calm for the entire ride, and asked to go again.
I’ve always been something of an existentialist, believing that we can never truly know what’s in the mind of another. Others may tell us what they are purportedly thinking and feeling, but even then you can never really know if they are telling the truth, or if their perception of emotion is synonymous with your own. With my son, you don’t even get this. All you can do is look at the shadows on the cave wall and guess as to what are casting them.
And even though we know our son better than anyone, we still cannot predict with anything resembling certainty how he will react to any given situation. His moods are as volatile and unpredictable as the weather. Our ability to forecast has improved over the years, but even we carry umbrellas.
October 23rd, 2013
What is your son’s favorite game.
I am a fan of board games, so folks often wonder what I play with my son. He doesn’t get the social aspects of play (competition, cooperation, trading, and so forth), nor the narrative arc of games like Max, but he enjoys the pattern-matching of picture dominoes and The Kids of Carcassonne, even if we don’t keep score.
His favorite game, however, is the simple but engaging Animal Upon Animal.
Animal Upon Animal comes with 29 chunky wood animals: a single crocodile, which starts the game in the center of the table, and four sets of seven different animals. Each animal has a distinct shape, with smooth curves (snakes), bumpy backs (sheep), pointy ridges (hedgehogs), and flat feet (penguins).
On a turn you roll the six sided die, and perform the action indicated. In most cases this will involve taking one or more animals from your personal stash and placing them onto the ever-growing pyramid in the center of the table, but some of the die faces allow you to instead enlarge the base of the pile, or even give one of your animals to an opponent. Any animals that topple to the table during your placement go back into your reserve, and the first player to get rid of all of his animals wins.
The game is pure dexterity, and therefore perfectly suited for my son. Even better, his nimble little fingers make him a better player than I, and he has a knack for spotting clever placements, where the edge of one animal fits neatly into the groove of another. His only fatal flaw, in regards to strategy, is his preference for the snakes, even when another animal might be easier to place. But I have to admit the snakes are the cutest, and it is very satisfying to sneak one onto the top of a tall and precarious stack.
I recommend Animal Upon Animal to all parents, not just those of children with autism. It’s one of of the few kid’s games that’s as fun for adults as it is for the intended audience. Just make sure all the pieces go back in the box after you are done — step on a hedgehog in the middle of the night and you will swear off board games, or children, forever.
October 22nd, 2013
My son loves the water. Always has.
We enrolled him in a Waterbabies class when he was less than a year old, and swimming quickly became his favorite activity. Where other children thrashed around in a semi-panic as their parents towed them around the pool, my kid was squealing with delight. Indeed, the only time that the histrionics were deployed was when I announced that it was time to leave.
Exhibit B: when we visit the family cabin he spends much of his time in the hot tub, throwing a tennis ball for a neighbor dog and then splashing about until it is returned.
Add to this his leisurely baths, and I became convinced that submersion in water soothed him. This fits with our general observation that he enjoys pressure of all kinds. When he wears a tight-fitting Lycra shirt, he seems somewhat calmer. I will sometimes enter his room when he is supposed to be sleeping, only to find him between the fitted sheet and the mattress. And he is a big fan of beanbags, though he is more likely to be found under rather than on them.
As he’s gotten older, however, I’ve come to realize that he simply enjoys being drenched, and isn’t particular as to how that happens. Sprinklers work as well as pools, and his showers drag on as long as his baths. He is unfazed by rain and thrilled by puddles. When we send him to camp, we always tell his aide to keep a close eye on him if they go near any source of water, and he returns home soaked regardless.
His favorite place is the beach, and we visit it as often as is practical in the Pacific Northwest (although his Scandinavian heritage allows him to joyfully endure the water for a few weeks after most Seattleites have deemed it too cold). Earlier this year we traveled to Hawaii and attended a wedding a few feet from the surf. I was certain that he would bolt into the waves in the middle of the vows, but some previous visitor to the beach had excavated an enormous pit in the sand and he spent his time playing in that. Only after the ceremony, when we gave him the go-ahead, did he at last rush into the water, fully-clothed, to the amusement of all.
Perhaps the most unusual side effect of his hydrophila is his enthusiasm for H2O: Just Add Water. It is the only story-oriented television show he watches, and even here he doesn’t really follow the narrative, instead skipping around until he finds scenes of the protagonists swimming. It’s all very charming, until I pull up Netflix in front of friends and have to explain why my “Recently Watched” queue is entirely populated by an Australian soap opera about mermaids that is intended for tween girls.
October 21st, 2013
We don’t know if our son is able to read facial expressions, and the subtleties of tone often appear lost on him. So, we overemote. When we smile, we do the full Cheshire Cat. Our frowns are less :( than :c. We react to his every praiseworthy accomplishment as if he just won the Stanley Cup, and speak to him much more gruffly than would usually be necessary when reprimanding him for some transgression.
All the world is a stage, but my household in particular is like a high school drama club production.
October 20th, 2013
A stereotype I have of people on the spectrum is that they don’t love in the way that neurotypical people do. Your descriptions of your time with him certainly sound affectionate. Do you think it is fondness or just familiarity on his part?
Both, I believe.
There is a set number of people with whom he will interact — family, friends of family, teachers, therapists — and he seems indifferent to the rest, so he’s not indiscriminate. When we take him to the playground, for instance, he is the politest child you can imagine, patiently waiting his turn for the slide and never pushing past another kid. But he also does not interact with them socially. Compare this to how he behaves around people he knows. The more familiar he is with someone, the more likely he is to come hang around (or on) them, squeeze their arm, sit next to them on the couch, and so forth.
He gets excited when his grandparents visit, even to the point of insomnia if they arrive too late in the evening. To see him in those instances is to know that there is genuine affection, and not just familiarity.
Follow-up: Does he have aversions to some people?
Again, he only really reacts to those he is familiar with. But, yes, sometimes there are aversions. For instance, if he is watching TV and suspects that I might tell him to turn it off, my entrance into the family room is greeted with a hearty “PAPA GO AWAY!”
Do you have to speak to your son differently than you do to other kids his age?
While we pretty much know the extent of my son’s ability to express himself, it’s difficult to determine his receptive language. He’s certainly capable of understanding and following a wide range of simple commands, even those he has never before heard. For example, when I recently told him to “go downstairs and bring me the mouse,” he disappeared for a few moments and returned with the mouse in hand. I had never uttered that exact request before, but he had no problem parsing it. This is in stark contrast to his expressive language, where he very rarely utters something new.
Even so, when making requests of this sort I tend to make them as simple as possible, and emphasize the key words. In the example above, my exact enunciation was probably more along the lines of “Go downstairs. And bring me the mouse.” We’ve noticed that we can chain together about three requests maximum, before he loses focus.
Conversationally, I speak to him as I would any other child his age. When we are in the car, or on a walk, I just chatter at him about whatever is on mind. I didn’t used to do this — for a while I thought there was “no point” in doing so, on the theory that he couldn’t comprehend what I was saying anyway — but one day I realized that I didn’t really know if he could understand or not, and forced myself to keep up a one-sided conversation.
At first this felt very weird to me, a situation I called “the Reverse Harveyeffect.” In the play Harvey, you may recall, the protagonist holds animated conversations with a companion that only he can see, leading others to view him as insane; in my case I was speaking to a child that everyone could see, but that I alone “knew” couldn’t understand. But after a while this became natural to me, and I keep this monologue up whenever he and I are together. And I know he hears me, at the very least; heaven help me if I accidentally say “swimming pool”, for instance.
It’s often suggested that ASD has a heritable component. Do you buy that theory? Do you consider yourself 100% neurotypical?
I buy this hypothesis, yes. And although folks in IT self-diagnosing as slightly autistic has been all the rage ever since the Wired AQ Test was published, I’ll go ahead and do so anyway.
Ironically, I don’t think this is evident to my friends and acquaintances, because it’s something I’ve worked to overcome. As a child I was not super comfortable making eye contact, for instance, and this persisted into my teens. At some point I realized that this was a limitation in job interviews, where eye contact is viewed as a sign of confidence and trustworthiness, and so trained myself to hold eye contact more regularly. Now I can stare down the best of them. Likewise, if you saw me at a party, and if i was making an effort to “fake it”, you would probably be unaware that I generally find parties unnerving.
What are your favorite/least favorite terms to refer to an autistic kid? What are your favorite/least favorite terms to refer to a non-autistic kid?
Some people dislike the word “autistic”, because they feel it defines the child completely in terms of his or her disability, and prefer “person with autism”. I’m fine with either, but tend to use the “with autism” formulation because it’s just as easy, and doesn’t raise any hackles.
I have heard children with autism, especially those with Aspergers, referred to as “little professors”, which I find charming.
The term I generally use when referring to non-autistic children is “neurotypical”, because I prefer “typical” over “normal”, and because “neuro” clearly calls out the distinction.
Does your son enjoy reading?
It is one of his favorite activities. It is unclear how much he comprehends, but he’s always been fascinated with words.
October 19th, 2013
Here is a candid shot of my son:
And here is posed photograph, taken seconds later:
As you can see, he has mastered the art of saying “cheese” without smiling.
Worse, we accidentally trained him to associated cameras with the saying of “cheese” rather than with smiling, so the face above is what appears in everything from school photos to pictures with Santa Claus.
It is a real problem but not one without a solution, as he demonstrated one afternoon by running into the kitchen like this:
October 18th, 2013
1. Shortly after my son was born, in the hospital delivery room, I stuck my tongue out at him. I had read that infants would imitate adults who did so in one of those innumerable baby books, but got no response. I tried several more times in the coming months, but don’t believe he ever mimicked my action.
I have often wondered is this was an early sign of his autism, despite the fact the researchers generally agree that it cannot be diagnosed prior to 18 months. If so, it would demonstrate that he was born with the condition, and it did not develop later as some people hypothesize.
I’m the first to admit that I may be misremembering this, so take it with a grain of salt.
2. Shortly after my son was diagnosed, at age three or four, I noticed something funny about his reaction to food.
He was (and remains) quite resistant to trying new things, and I would often go to great lengths to get him to at least taste some new foodstuff I was trying to introduce into his diet. Alas, all of my entreaties were met with “no!” Inevitably, after much wheedling, I would take a bite of the thing myself while making loud “mmm-mmm-MMM” noises and announcing how delicious it was, trying to convince him to try it.
As I would bring the whatever to my open mouth, my son’s eyes would widen, and he would yell “no! NO!” all the louder. I have no way of knowing for sure, but it sometimes seemed as though he was unable to distinguish between my eating the food and his eating of the food. That is to say, it reacted as though I was somehow thwarting his will by putting the food into my own mouth, as if I had figured out a way to put it into his mouth despite his objections.
I don’t know if it was true or not. But on evenings when he was particularly stubborn, I would gleefully take bites of his refused food just to exact some revenge.
3. My son has trouble with pronouns, and doesn’t understand that you must reverse them when referring to someone else. If I say “do you want me to pick you up?” for instance, he will raise his arms and say, “pick you up!” If I ask, “Do you want mint gum or watermelon gum?”, he replies, “do you want watermelon gum.”
We moved a few months ago, and I recently took him to a new therapist for the first time. At the end of the hour, when they came out to the waiting room, I asked how it went.
“Great,” she said. “He was a little silly at first, but calmed down after 10 minutes and worked really hard.”
Then she paused for a moment, and got a queer look on her face. “One funny thing, though,” she added. “He kept saying that he wanted to pick me up.”
October 17th, 2013
Have you read “The Reason I Jump”, the book written by the autistic child If so, what were your thoughts about it?
My wife first brought this book to my attention last month, and shortly thereafter I saw the Daily Show interview with David Mitchell, author of Cloud Atlas and translator of The Reason I Jump. I swiped my wife’s Kindle and read it in roughly 24 hours.
I am of two minds.
On the one hand, I found it interesting and engrossing. I did not enjoy it, exactly — the author, Naoki Higashida, talks at great lengths about what a burden he feels he is on others — But I am glad to have read it.
On the other hand, I have some concerns about the book. For instance Higashida often speaks on behalf of all people autism, as if they are of a single mind. Here is a typical excerpt (emphasis added):
Why do you memorize train timetables and calendars?
Because it’s fun! We get a real kick out of numbers, us people with autism. Numbers are fixed, unchanging things. The number 1, for example, is only ever, ever the number 1. That simplicity, that clearness, it’s so comforting to us … Invisible things like human relationships and ambiguous expressions, however, these are difficult for us people with autism to get our heads around.
It is my belief, as I’ve stated here before, that very little can be generalized about people with autism, as they are as distinct from one another as they are from their neurotypical peers. I don’t begrudge Higashida for writing in this style, but worry that readers will assume that this one child’s experiences are universal.
Indeed David Mitchell, who has a son with autism, seems to view Higashida as something of a spokesman. Here is what he wrote in an article for The Guardian:
I felt as if my own son was responding to my own queries about what it’s like to live inside an autistic mind. Why do you have meltdowns? How do you view memory, time and beauty? For the first time I had answers, not just theories.
I have no qualms about “felt as if my son was responding to my own queries”, but “I had answers” strikes me as worrisome.
Elsewhere in that article Mitchell recounts the famous (at least in special needs circles) Welcome to Holland essay, and says he heard it “via a Jewish friend’s rabbi”; in fact it is very easy to find the actual author of the piece (Emily Kingsley), and odd that Mitchell, a writer himself, wouldn’t bother to look. And according to The New York Times, “[Mitchell and Higashida] have never met in person, and Higashida had almost no involvement in the English edition.” All of this makes me leery of the book’s provenance.
So while I wouldn’t discourage anyone from reading The Reason I Jump, I haven’t been quick to recommend it either.